Forming a Corporation Internal Revenue Service

Without such limitation, owners could structure financing of the corporation in a manner that would provide for a tax deduction for much of the profits, potentially without changing the tax on shareholders. For example, assume a corporation earns profits of 100 before interest expense and would normally distribute 50 to shareholders. If the corporation is structured so that deductible interest of 50 is payable to the shareholders, it will cut its tax to half the amount due if it merely paid a dividend. Many systems provide that certain corporate events are not taxable to corporations or shareholders. Often, domestic corporations are taxed on worldwide income while foreign corporations are taxed only on income from sources within the jurisdiction. Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax”.

Corporate Income Tax

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) reduced the top corporate income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent and eliminated the graduated corporate rate schedule and the corporate alternative minimum tax. Through 2022, the TCJA allows full expensing of most new investment, after which that benefit is phased out through 2026. The TCJA also limited net interest expense deductions to 30 percent of adjusted taxable income.


Many companies are not subject to the CIT because they are taxed as pass-through businesses, with income reportable under the individual income tax. For decades, the biggest and most profitable U.S. corporations have found ways to shelter their profits from federal income taxation. ITEP reports have documented such tax avoidance since the early years of the Reagan administration’s misguided tax-cutting experiment. A widely cited ITEP analysis of an eight-year period (2008 through 2015) confirmed that federal tax avoidance remained rampant before the TCJA. Average effective tax rates—the percentage of income paid after tax breaks—among profitable large corporations fell from 16% in 2014 to 9% in 2018. Pechman and Okner accepted Harberger’s view that the corporate income tax is borne by capital as their most preferred assumption and assigned the entire burden to income from capital in their central variant.

This acquisition is not taxable to Smallco or its shareholders under U.S. or Canadian tax law if certain requirements are met, even if Smallco is then liquidated into or merged or amalgamated with Bigco. Corporate tax rates across the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are shown in the table. Note that laws can differ across state lines when defining a business’s nexus, or a connection to the state, meaning that the business has tax liability there.

Individual Tax Types

Empirical researchers must select what they think are the most important market reactions to the tax from a staggering set of possibilities, and methods of selection are bound to differ. Unfortunately, empirical tax incidence analysis appears not to be especially robust to assumptions made about sectors of the economy not explicitly under examination. Another confounding factor previously mentioned is that researchers often employ different theoretical measures of incidence as a basis for their empirical work, and it is the theoretical differences that we wish to focus on here. All revenue data are from the US Census Bureau’s Annual Survey of State Government Tax Collections.

  • Instead, a business may register as an S corporation and have all income pass-through to the business owners.
  • For instance, it is the one reported in most of the principles textbooks written for the U.S. market.
  • The U.S. income, current federal income tax and effective tax rates in 2020 for all 55 of the zero-tax companies are shown in the following table.
  • Withholding Tax Rates 2023 includes information on statutory domestic rates that apply to payments from a source jurisdiction to nonresident companies without a permanent establishment in that source jurisdiction.
  • State of Georgia government websites and email systems use “” or “” at the end of the address.
  • Corporation tax should be paid within 12 months after the end of corporation tax accounting period.
  • By careful consideration of the first accounting reference period, the first payment of tax can be considerably lessened and cash flow improved for the first year.

Maine imposes an income tax on all entities organized as corporations and that have Maine-source income. The corporate income tax is graduated, with rates ranging from 3.5% (for income up to $350,000) to 8.93% (for income in excess of $3,500,000). The tax generally does not apply to S corporations unless the corporation has federal taxable income at the corporate level.

How the CARES Act Creates Zero-Tax Corporations

A 5% CIT rate applies to income of certain investment funds, and a 0% CIT rate applies to pension funds. The authors of this report would like to thank ITEP tax interns David Crawford and Devin Douglass for their work tabulating data for this analysis. FedEx achieved the same zero tax result on almost $6.9 billion of U.S. income during the past three years. Information on this page relates to a tax year that began on or after January 1, 2022, and before January 1, 2023.

  • As part of the US tax code, of course, things can get complicated rather quickly—particularly for ecommerce businesses that operate across state lines.
  • Corporate tax rates vary widely by country, with some countries considered to be tax havens due to their low rates.
  • Of the remaining jurisdictions, four are in North America, and five are in South America.
  • Entities such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and S corps are not separate from their owners, so in those cases any corporate income is passed through to the owners who pay income tax at their individual rates.
  • Now, a ten percent return on certain qualified business asset investment is exempt from further U.S. tax—a so-called “territorial” system.

Dividends, interests and royalties paid to a nonresident are subject to a 30% withholding tax unless the rate is reduced under an applicable tax treaty. VAT is dealt with separately and collected by Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs. Strict rules govern the keeping of VAT accounts and hefty fines are levied for late payment.

2.4.2 Corporate income tax

A non-resident company may be assessable and chargeable to UK income tax or corporation tax in the name of the UK branch or agent. The UK branch or agent is required to self assess the position of the non resident in the same way as the non-resident company would be if it were UK resident. Some jurisdictions, such as Swiss cantons and certain states within the United States, impose taxes based on capital. Most systems treat the formation of a corporation by a controlling corporate shareholder as a nontaxable event. And Nike has paid no federal income tax in the TCJA era on $4.1 billion of U.S. pretax income. The Corporate Income Tax is a net income tax based on income allocated or apportioned to Vermont.

Corporate Income Tax

The Corporate Income Tax is levied on business profits of C-corporations (named after the relevant subchapter of the IRS code). A corporation can deduct employee salaries, health benefits, tuition reimbursement, and bonuses. In addition, a corporation can reduce its taxable income by deducting insurance premiums, travel expenses, bad debts, interest payments, sales taxes, fuel taxes, and excise taxes. Tax preparation fees, legal services, bookkeeping, and advertising costs can also be used to reduce business income. These computations may be based on assets, capital, wages, or some alternative measure of taxable income.

Forming a Corporation

However, the reduced-rate Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (GILTI) minimum tax applies to returns above that amount regardless of whether they are repatriated as dividends. The TCJA also created a new domestic minimum tax, the Base Erosion and Anti-abuse tax (BEAT), designed to prevent cross-border profit shifting. A deduction for certain foreign-derived intangible income (FDII) serves as an incentive for corporations to locate intellectual property in the U.S. A corporate tax is a tax imposed on the net profit of a corporation that is taxed at the entity level in a particular jurisdiction. Net profit for corporate tax is generally the financial statement net profit with modifications, and may be defined in great detail within each country’s tax system. The tax systems of most countries impose an income tax at the entity level on the certain type(s) of entities (company or corporation).

In addition, a few systems provide a tax exemption for dividend income received by corporations. The Netherlands system provides a “participation exception” to taxation for corporations owning more than 25% of the dividend paying corporation. Other jurisdictions provide corporations a means of designating, within limits, whether a distribution is a distribution of earnings taxable to the shareholder or a return of capital.

Schedule M-3 for Large Business & International (LB&I)

Some systems provide a mechanism whereby groups of related corporations may obtain benefit from losses, credits, or other items of all members within the group. Mechanisms include combined or consolidated returns as well as group relief (direct benefit from items of another member). What’s more, states have varying definitions of a business’s nexus, or a connection to the state, which dictates whether the business has tax liability there.

  • The tax does not apply to financial institutions that are subject to Maine’s franchise tax, or to insurance companies subject to premiums tax.
  • Instead, their owners must include an allocated share of the businesses’ profits (known as “pass-through” income) in their taxable income under the individual income tax.
  • Fortunately, the policy remedies Congress shunned in 2017 remain available today.
  • Formal VAT returns must be submitted, together with any tax, by the end of the following month.

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